a) Why is reason not always a foolproof guide?
“It would be, if it were not corrupted by poor education, pride, and selfshness. Instinct does not reason. Reason provides freedom of choice and gives individuals free will.” Instinct is a primary form of intelligence, differing from intelligence in that it is often spontaneous, while intelligence is the result of planning and deliberate action. Instinct can manifest itself very differently between species based on their needs. In beings that possess self-consciousness and the perception of things outside themselves, it is associated with intelligence, i.e., freedom of action and will.